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Women Mystic Series – Umm ‘Abdallah, Sufi Dreamer

March 27, 2014
Sufis Whirling by Iranian artist Mitra Banejad. Whirling is not from the same tradition as Umm 'Abdallah, but I felt the spirit of it matched (and the artist is a woman as well!)  Clickthrough for source.

Sufis Whirling by Iranian artist Mitra Banejad. Whirling is not from the same tradition as Umm ‘Abdallah, but I felt the spirit of it matched (and the artist is a woman as well!)

In honor of Women’s History month, I wanted to add to my occasional series on historical Women Mystics. Since most major spiritual traditions were dominated by men teachers and leaders until recently (and many still are), I think it’s important for us as modern women seekers to connect with models from the past – women with rich spiritual lives. It affirms the universality of the spiritual quest, and weaves together a structure for feminine awakening reaching across time and distance.

The woman I chose to feature this time is quite different from the women I have featured in the past. Most have been mystic rebels – in order to honor their mystic yearnings, they defied religious conventions of their time. Most have also been from celibate traditions, and thus have not had husbands or families. They have also largely been literate, and therefore we know of them, and their mystic experiences, through their own personal writings or poetry.

Umm ‘Abdallah is a very different choice, as none of this is true for her. She was the wife of Ali al-Hakim at-Tirmidhi, a 9th century Sufi scholar and mystic. We only know of her and her mystic experiences through at-Tirmidhi’s own memoir of his spiritual journey, The Beginning of the Matter, one of the first known preserved Sufi autobiographies. He never gives her name, so she is referred to by historians as Umm ‘Abdallah, which means ‘the mother of ‘Abdallah.’

As much as it  bothers me that we know her only through her husband – that she has no voice or even name of her own recorded in history – her husband’s descriptions of her mystic experiences and dreams captured me. I decided that in fact it was very appropriate to feature her, because like many women throughout history she sought deeper spiritual teachings in the only way she could at the time – through her husband. In so doing, she played a very special role in his path and teachings (which became of some reknown), and as a couple they formed a unique spiritual partnership, one based on equality and mutual support for each others’ search.

Umm ‘Abdallah was a very specific kind of spiritual mystic – a dreamer. Deep mystic knowledge came to her in her dreams, through symbols and visitations, on a regular basis. While we all dream, and occasionally have particularly meaningful dreams, the spiritual journeys of mystic dreamers revolve around their dreams. In every spiritual tradition I can think of, there is a special place for dreamers, and Sufism gives them particular significance. Dreams are considered symbolic representations of spiritual dimensions, belonging to the ‘alam al-mithal’, or ‘World of Imagination.’ Far from considered useless fantasy, this kind of imagination in Sufism is honored as the intermediary between the seen and unseen world.

Umm ‘Abdullah’s dreams were also teaching dreams – they brought new knowledge and teachings to her husband. While much of mystic Sufism is based on a teacher-student dynamic, seekers may also receive teachings directly from the Divine through dreams. At-Tirmidhi did not have a formal teacher for much of his path – he studied and meditated on his own. At a certain point, his wife Umm ‘Abdallah began having dreams that answered his questions when they arose. Many of her dreams included an old man, white-haired and clad in white, representative in Sufism of a Khidr, or teacher of Divine Knowledge who comes to teach those in dreams who do not have a living teacher.

Through a Khidr in Umm ‘Abdallah’s dreams, her husband receives guidance on how to proceed to the next level of his path, and also encouragement to become a guide to others himself. As these dreams continue, at-Tirmidhi writes:

“Now my wife kept dreaming about me, dream after dream, always at dawn. It was as if she, or the dreams, were messengers for me. There was no need for interpretation, because their meaning was clear.”

In further dreams, he is given signs that he has progressed from the level of external worshiper to one who truly communes with the Divine. In addition, Umm ‘Abdallah receives a message that she is his spiritual equal, and they proceed along their path as such, in a united spiritual quest. The level of mutual reverence and spiritual partnership that he describes in his memoir is truly unparalleled in historic spiritual writings, as far as I know. However, this is all in private – in public at-Tirmidhi is the spiritual leader and teacher, while Umm ‘Abdallah devotes herself to protecting and helping to spread his teachings behind the scenes.

What really captured me in the tale of this mystic couple was a 10-day spiritual transformation that Umm ‘Abdallah underwent after many years in her quest, while awake, although including many dream-like visions. She experienced wave after wave of mystic visions, along with ecstasy and light pouring into and through her, unsought and unstoppable. Here ‘s how she described the first two days to her husband:

“I felt as if something penetrated my chest, circled my heart, and enveloped it. It filled my chest up to the throat; I almost choked from its fullness. Heat spread through the cavity of my body, my heart was aflame, and all the Sacred Names appeared to me in their glory. Anything upon which my eyes fell, on the earth or in the sky; anyone whom I looked at, I saw as I have never seen before, because of the beauty and joy and sweetness [which filled me]. Then a verse in Persian descended upon my heart: ‘We have given you one thing!’

“Again I was filled with joy, elation, and great energy.”

“The next day,” she said, “another verse descended on my heart: ‘We have given you three things: Our Glory, Our Might, and Our Beauty.’

“Then,” she said, “I saw this glow behind me, and it stayed above my head as if in a dream, and in this glowing light these three things were revealed to me: the knowledge of the Divine Glory, the knowledge of the Divine Might, and the knowledge of the Divine Beauty…”

From the third day onward, “knowledge of the names of God were revealed to  her”, one after the other. At-Tirmidhi writes,

“She remained in this state for some time, and then the knowledge of God was revealed to her. Each day new names were opened up to her, and the glowing light was upon her heart, and the inward meaning of the names was revealed to her…On the tenth day she came to me and said the name “The Gracious” was revealed to her.”

Beautiful, no?

This translation was taken from The Taste of Hidden Things, by Sara Sviri. If you’d like to learn more about Umm ‘Abdullah as well as many other Sufi women, check out the excellent Women of Sufism: A Hidden Treasure, by Camille Adams Helsinki.

11 Comments leave one →
  1. March 28, 2014 12:54 am

    I absolutely agree with this *I think it’s important for us as modern women seekers to connect with models from the past – women with rich spiritual lives.* and I am just beginning to research, read and learn about these women. It’s so brand new to me that each story is a gift; I very appreciate this article.

    I *love* the model of this spiritual partnership – how Umm ‘Abdallah’s dreams brought knowledge and teachings to her husband and through her openness and sacred connection, she became his spiritual equal. Her spiritual transformation experience sounds *quite beautiful*. It feels so far away from my conditioning and my reality but in an ‘inspiring, continue to center and celebrate this heart-path’ kind of way. Thank you!

  2. Tina permalink
    March 28, 2014 4:34 am

    Wow, so beautiful and captivating I can’t wait to read the book!!

  3. March 28, 2014 4:11 pm

    Hi Joy, yes it’s quite a dramatic experience, like Teresa of Avila’s ‘ecstasies’ and the visions of other mystics. But something about it feels very real and powerful. For me, it is the light rushing through her, piercing her heart. The ‘kundalini geek’ in me thinks of it in technical terms as a kundalini awakening in the heart, but I also try to let that go and just let it be a mystery. I like that the universe is vast and inexplicable, and that even with all of our science, we have not yet truly understood all that humans can experience within it.

  4. March 28, 2014 4:12 pm

    Hi Tina, I’m glad you liked it. Sufi mysticism is lovely, and the descriptions of her dreams and experiences are among the most vivid and beautiful that I have read.

  5. April 1, 2014 1:56 am

    Beautiful–thank you!

    I experienced these symptoms–“I felt as if something penetrated my chest, circled my heart, and enveloped it. It filled my chest up to the throat; I almost choked from its fullness. Heat spread through the cavity of my body, my heart was aflame…”

    off an on from 2004-2005 through knowing someone. I was aware that it was through him that my heart was opening, and was not so much about a relationship with him. I’ve written volumes about this but it all remains private at this point. However, reading those descriptive words reminded me of the whole experience, mystical indeed!

  6. April 1, 2014 8:31 pm

    Hi Cate, we all have our own ways of interpreting these things. For me, of course, as a ‘chakra geek’ lol, I see it as a kind of kundalini shift and heart chakra opening. Of course that’s only the subtle body level, how it integrates into the other levels of her being is the mystical part. What is so fascinating to me is that we can find descriptions of this kind of experience all around the world throughout history, and each person then interprets it from within their own spiritual or psychological frame of reference. The experiences are common, but the interpretation differs. I think part of the reason I like the kundalini/chakra framework is that it provides a way of understanding the common part of the experience…

  7. April 2, 2014 10:02 pm

    yes indeed–looking for the thing we can all relate to and understand! Thanks.

  8. July 10, 2014 3:16 pm

    So happy to have found this blog and a like-minded community. Please check out my book: The Crystal Staircase: A Woman’s Journey, available through Outskirts Press. Basic plot = 4 individuals arrive at a retreat for healthcare professionals. The theme of the retreat is “Spirituality and Healing.” We follow the progress of these 4 “wounded healers” (two doctors and two nurses) through the course of a week as they gradually confront issues of abandonment, grief, pain rooted in childhood events, and fear and anger. The central character is Eva Green, RN for 30 years and burn-out case for 10. She arrives at the beautiful and secluded retreat center, hoping to leave her troubles (work/family) behind only to find out quickly that she has brought her problems with her. Very quickly she is confronted by nightmare lions that stalk and try to devour her. She is also haunted by visions of a sad little girl and gradually realizes that she is that sad child. She must search for a way to comfort that child in order to heal her own deep seated wounds. In her darkest moment, she cries out for help and that cry is heard. A “little brown man” appears and departs the wisdom and love she is looking for. It is lovely to see how these four wounded healers are able to connect with each other in graceful and loving ways.

  9. shaziahatoon permalink
    November 10, 2017 11:27 pm

    Beautiful indeed.
    I’m sure there’s more female Mystics than just Rabin Basri…bless the women Mystics. ..spiritual warriors.

  10. Sandra T Francis permalink
    November 11, 2017 12:27 am

    This article on Umm Abdallah came at just the right time. I’m a member of a Daughters of Abraham book club where Muslim,Jewish, and Christian women read and learn about each other’s faith traditions. My assignment was to lead a discussion about the role of women in the early days of Islam. I’m sure this will spark an interesting discussion. Thank you!

  11. November 13, 2017 8:39 pm

    Great Sandra, glad it was helpful.

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